Sites – Culture of Europe (overview) European culture (NOT the same as above – here individual countries)
the European (annotation theirs) “The European Culture Portal provides information on these policies and directs you to specialised Sites where you can find more detailed information, such as the Culture site, which specialises in aid for cultural cooperation in Europe. The Portal can also direct you to the Sites of the national authorities responsible for culture in Europe.”european social (annotation theirs) “The questionnaire includes two main sections, each consisting of approximately 120 items; a ‘core’ module which will remain relatively constant from round to round, plus two or more ‘rotating’ modules, repeated at intervals. The core module aims to monitor change and continuity in a wide range of social variables, including media use, social and public trust; political interest and participation; socio-political orientations, governance and efficacy; moral, political and social values; social exclusion, national, ethnic and religious allegiances; well-being, health and security; demographics and socio-economics. In addition, a supplementary questionnaire is presented to respondents at the end of the main interview. The first part of this questionnaire is a human values scale (part of the core), while the second is devoted to measures to help evaluate the reliability and validity of items in the main questionnaire.” (annotation theirs) “The Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF) is an internationally recognized organization in the field of cultural anthropology.  The mission of HRAF is to encourage and facilitate worldwide comparative studies of human behavior, society, and culture.  Founded in 1949 at Yale University, HRAF is a financially autonomous research agency of Yale. HRAF produces two major collections (the HRAF Collection of Ethnography and the HRAF Collection of Archaeology), encyclopedias, and other resources for teaching and research.  Click on one of the areas above for more information.  World renown cultural anthropology site but subscription only but a free 1 month trial is available — Contact HRAF for more information at 1-800-520-HRAF (4723), 203-764-9401, or
This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it .. ” Policy Resources (annotation theirs)Aware of the need to delve further into the multi-layered concepts of cultural diversity, conflict resolution and pluralism, UNESCO proposes this second edition of the World Culture Report, in which experts, statisticians and artists provide information and analysis and propose new concepts, insights and policy recommendations.” (Tables of statistics of cultural practices)


Birnbaum, Alexandra Mayes, ed. Birnbaum’s Europe for Business Travelers. Harper Perennial, New York 1993
Bosrock, Mary Munay. Put Your Best Foot Forward: Europe. International Education Systems, St. Paul, Minnesota 1994
Collett, Peter (1993), Foreign Bodies: A Guide to European Mannerisms, London: Simon & Schuster.
De Kieffer, Donald Eulette. The International Business Traveler’s Companion. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, Maine. 1993
Delanty, Inventing Europe: Idea, Identity, Reality Macmillan 1995.
Devine, Elizabeth and Braganti, Nancy L. European Customs & Manners. Meadowbrook Press, New York 1999
Dulles, Foster Rhea. Americans Abroad: Two Centuries of European Travel. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1964.
Giorcelli, Christina, and Rob Kroes, (eds.) Living with America, 1946-1996. Amsterdam: VU University P, 1997. (Europeans view of Americans)
Jordan, Terry G. The European Culture Area: A Systematic Geography. 381 pp.; maps, diagrs., ills., bibliogrs., index. Harper & Row, Publishers 2002.
Mole, John (1998), Mind Your Manners: Managing Business Cultures in Europe, London / Naperville: Brealey.
Mole, John. When in Rome: A Business Guide to Cultures & Customs in 12 European Nations. American Management Association. New York 1991
Morrison Terri / Conaway, Wayne A. / Borde, George A. (1994), Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands: How to Do Business in Sixty Countries, Holbrook: Adams Media.
Racks, David A. Blunders in International Business. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993
Richmond. Yale. From Da to Yes: Understanding East Europeans. Intercultural Press. Yarmouth. Maine 1995
Richmond. Yale. From Nyet to Da: Understanding the Russians. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, Maine 1992
Rietbergen, P. Europe: A Cultural History 1998.
Totosy de Zepetnek, Steven (ed) Comparative Central European Culture ISBN 1-55753-240-0 (Paperback)
Europe vs. America (annotation theirs) “very extensive book review of a book discussing how fundamental differences in cultures have created the current tension. An excellent book to understand what has led to anti-americanism in western Europe.
American Culture in Europe (book – the Americanization of European culture)
European Readings of American Popular Culture (book – the Americanization of European culture)
Christianity and European Culture: Selections from the Work of Christopher Dawson by Gerald J. Russello and Christopher Dawson (Oct 1998)
Contextuality in Reformed Europe: The Mission of the Church in the Transformation of European Culture (Currents of Encounter 23) by Michael Weinrich, Hendrik M. Vroom, and Christine Lienemann-Perrin (Jun 2004)
Cultures in Conflict: Encounters Between European and Non-European Cultures, 1492-1800 by Urs Bitterli (Jun 1, 1993)
Difference And Community.Canadian and European Cultural Perspectives. (Cross/Cultures 25) by Peter Easingwood (Jan 1, 1996)
European Business Culture by Robert Crane (Feb 9, 2000)
European Cities, 1890-1930s: History, Culture and the Built Environment by Helen Meller (2001)
European Culture Since 1848: From Modern to Postmodern and Beyond by James A. Winders (2001)
If You’ve Seen One, You’ve Seen the Mall: Europeans And American Mass Culture by Rob Kroes (1996)
Not Like Us: How Europeans Have Loved, Hated and Transformed American Culture Since World War II by Richard H. Pells (April 1998)
The Culture of the Europeans by Donald Sassoon (Sep 4, 2006)
The European Culture Area by Bella Bychkova Jordan, Terry G. Jordan-Bychov, and Bella Bychova Jordan (Sep 2001)
The Europeans: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment (Texts In Regional Geography) by Robert C. Ostergren and John G. Rice (Mar 18, 2004)Analysis Of Western Culture
Barrett, William. Death of the Soul: From Descartes to the Computer. New York: Anchor Press, 1986.
Bellah, Robert, et al. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1985.
Berger, Peter. Facing Up to Modernity: Excursions in Society, Religion and Politics. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Borgman, Albert. Crossing the Postmodern Divide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Dooyeweerd, Herman. Roots of Western Culture: Pagan, Secular, and Christian Options. Translated by J. Kraay. Toronto: Wedge, 1979.
Ellis, Carl, Jr. Beyond Liberation: The Gospel and the Black American Experience. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1983.
Ellul, Jacques. The Betrayal of the West. New York: Seabury, 1978.
Goudzwaard, Bob. Capitalism and Progress: A Diagnosis of Western Society. Trans. J. Van Nuis Zylstra. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1979.
Goudzwaard, Bob. Idols of Our Time. Trans. Mark VanderVennen. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1984.
Grenz, Stanley J. A Primer on Postmodernism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.
Groothuis, Douglas. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1986.
Guinness, Os. The Gravedigger File: Papers on the Subversion of the Modern Church. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1983.
Lyon, David. Postmodernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.
Murphy, Nancey and George Ellis. On the Moral Nature of the Universe: Theology, Cosmology, and Ethics. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996.
Newbigin, Lesslie. Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1986.
Newbigin, Lesslie. The Gospel in a Pluralist Society. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans; Geneva: WCC Publications, 1989.
Newbigin, Lesslie. Proper Confidence: Faith, Doubt And Certainty In Christian Discipleship. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.
Walsh, Brian J. Who Turned Out the Lights? The Light of the Gospel in a Post-Enlightenment Culture. Toronto: Institute for Christian Studies, 1989.
Walsh, Brian J., and Middleton, J. Richard. Truth Is Stranger Than It Used To Be: Biblical Faith in a Postmodern Age. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1995.
Walter, Tony. Need: The New Religion. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1985.
Central and Eastern European Culture (post communism studies primarily)
Arens, Katherine. Austria and Other Margins: Reading Culture. Columbia: Camden House, 1996.
Ash, Timothy Garton. “The Puzzle of Central Europe.” The New York Review (18 March 1999): 18-23.
Bertens, Hans, and Douwe Fokkema, eds. “The Reception and Processing of Postmodernism: Central and Eastern Europe.” International Postmodernism: Theory and Literary Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1997. 413-59.
Bjrling, Fiona, ed. Through a Glass Darkly: Cultural Representation in the Dialogue Between Central, Eastern, and Western Europe. Lund: Slavica Lundensia, 1999.
Bojtár, Endre. “Die Postmoderne und die Literaturen Mittel- und Osteuropas.” Neohelicon: Acta comparationis litterarum universarum 16.1 (1989): 113-28.
Bojtár, Endre. East European Avant-garde Literature. Budapest: Akademiai, 1992.
Borghello, Giampaolo. “Svevo e la letteratura mitteleuropea: Appunti e riflessioni.” Neohelicon: Acta comparationis litterarum universarum 23.2 (1996): 21-35.
Borsody, Stephen. The New Central Europe: Triumphs and Tragedies. Boulder: East European Monographs, 1993.
Branzeu, Pia. Corridors of Mirrors: The Spirit of Europe in Contemporary British and Romanian Fiction. Lanham: UP of America, 2000.
Bristol, Evelyn, ed. East European Literature. Berkeley: U of California Berkeley Slavics Specialities, 1982.
Collins, R. G., and Kenneth McRobbie, eds. The Eastern European Imagination in Literature. Thematic Isse of Mosaic: A Journal for the Comparative Study of Literature and Ideas 6.4 (1974): 1-238.
Corcoran, Farrel, and Paschal Preston, eds. Democracy and Communication in the New Europe: Change and Continuity in East and West. Cresskill: Hampton P, 1995.
Cornis-Pope, Marcel. “Cultural Dialogics before and after 1989.” The Unfinished Battles: Romanian Postmodernism before and after 1989. By Marcel Cornis-Pope. Iasi: Polirom, 1996. 7-29.
Cornwall, Mark. The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: The Battle for Hearts and Minds. New York: Palgrave, 2000.
Czerwinski, E. J. “The Oldest Dying Profession: Poetry in Eastern Europe.” World Literature Today 59.2 (1985): 203-07.
Dalbert, Claudia, and Hedvig Katona Sallay. “The ‘belief in a just world’ Construct in Hungary.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 27 (1996): 293-314.
Deltcheva, Roumiana. “Comparative Central European Culture: Displacements and Peripheralities.” Comparative Central European Culture. Ed. Steven Totosy de Zepetnek. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 2001. 149-68.
Drakulic, Slavenka. Cafe Europa: Life after Communism. New York: Norton, 1997.
Drakulic, Slavenka. How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed. New York: Harper, 1991.
Dupcsik, Csaba. “Postcolonial Studies and the Inventing of Eastern Europe.” East Central Europe 26.1 (1999): 1-14.
Dutu, Alexandru. Political Models and National Identities in “Orthodox Europe.” Bucuresti: Babel, 1998.
Eagle, Herbert. “Czechoslavak, Polish, and Hungarian Cinema under Communism.” Cross Currents: A Yearbook of Central European Culture 11 (1992): 175-92.
Eidsvik, Charles. “Mock Realism: The Comedy of Futility in Eastern Europe.” Comedy/Cinema/Theory. Ed. Andrew S. Horton. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991. 91-109.
Enyedi, Gyorgy. “Urbanisation in East Central Europe: Social Processes and Societal Responses in the State Socialist Systems.” Urban Studies 29.6 (1992): 869-80.
Esbenshade, Richard S. “Remembering to Forget: Memory, History, National Identity in Postwar East-Central Europe. Representations 49 (1995): 72-96.
Fabry, Andrea. “A Comparative View of Modernism in Central European Literature.” Comparative Central European Culture. Ed. Steven Totosy de Zepetnek. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 2001. 33-50.
Fanger, Donald. “Central European Writers as a Social Force.” Partisan Review 59.4 (1992): 639-65.
Feher, Ferenc. “On Making Central Europe.” Eastern European Politics and Societies 3.3 (1989): 412-47.
Ferry, William E., and Roger Kanet, eds. Post-Communist States in the World Community. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1998.
Fleischer, Manfred P., ed. The Harvest of Humanism in Central Europe. St. Louis: Concordia P, 1992.
Forschungsstelle Osteuropa, ed. Kommerz, Kunst, Unterhaltung. Die neue Popularkultur in Zentral- und Osteuropa. Bremen: Edition Temmen, 2002.
Fried, Istvan. “East-Central Europe: Controversies over a Notion.” Danubian Historical Studies 2.1 (1988): 7-17.
Fried, Istvan. “Les Possibilites de la comparaison dans l’analyse des litteratures de l’Europe centrale et orientale.” Acta Litteraria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 24.3-4 (1982): 383-94.
Fried, Istvan. “On the Formation of East Central European Novel.” Acta Litteraria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 27.1-2 (1985): 173-88.
Fried, Istvan. “The Literary-Historical Process in East Central Europe.” Acta Litteraria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 31.1-2 (1989): 149-59.
Funk, Nanette, and Magda Mueller, eds. Gender Politics and Post-Communism. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Gal, Susan, and Gail Kligman, eds. Reproducing Gender: Politics, Publics, and Everyday Life after Socialism Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.
Gitelman, Zvi, Lubomyr Hajda, John-Paul Himka, and Roman Solchanyk, eds. Cultures and Nations of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000.
Glatz, Ferenc. Minorities in East-Central Europe: Historical Analysis and a Policy Proposal. Budapest: Europa Institut, 1993.
Goldfarb, David A. “Cinema in Transition: Recent Films from East and Central EuropeSlavic and East European Performance 13.2 (1993): 51-54.
Goldfarb, Jeffrey. After the Fall: The Pursuit of Democracy in Central Europe. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
Good, David F., and Tongshu Ma. “The Economic Growth of Central and Eastern Europe in Comparative Perspective, 1870-1989. European Review of Economic History 3.2 (1999): 103-37.
Gotovska-Popova, Todoritchka. “Nationalism in Post-Communist Eastern Europe.” East European Quarterly 27.2 (1992): 171-86.
Goulding, Daniel J. “East Central European Cinema: Two Defining Moments.” The Oxford Guide to Film Studies. Ed. John Hill and Pamela Gibson. New York: Oxford UP, 1998. 471-77.
Graubard, Stephen R., ed. Eastern Europe … Central Europe … Europe. Boulder: Westview P, 1991.
Gross, Jan T. “Social Consequences of War: Preliminaries to the Study of Imposition of Communist Regimes in East Central Europe.” Eastern European Politics and Societies 3.2 (1989): 198-214.
Hawkesworth, Celia, ed. Literature and Politics in Eastern Europe. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1992.
Hegyi, Lorand. “Central Europe as a Hypothesis and a Way of Life.” The Heartland Project: Exploring the Heartlands of Central Europe and the American Midwest: Aspects/Positions Thematic Issue 50 Years of Art in Central Europe 1949-1999 (Essays).
Hupchik, Dennis P. Culture and History in Eastern Europe. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1994.
Janaszek-Ivanickova, Halina. “Postmodern Literature and the Cultural Identity of Central and Eastern Europe.” Postcolonial Literatures: Theory and Practice / Les Litteratures post-coloniales. Theories et realisations. Ed. Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Sneja Gunew. Thematic Issue Canadian Review of Comparative Literature / Revue Canadienne de Litterature Comparee 22.3-4 (1995): 805-11.
Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta. Court, Cloister & City: The Art and Culture of Central Europe 1450-1800. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995.
Kennedy, Michael D. “An Introduction to East European Ideology and Identity in Transformation.” Envisioning Eastern Europe: Postcommunist Cultural Studies. Ed. Michael D. Kennedy. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1994. 1-45.
Kennedy, Michael D., ed. Envisioning Eastern Europe: Postcommunist Cultural Studies. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1994.
Kiraly, Bela K., and Dimitrije Djordjevic, eds. East Central European Society and the Balkan Wars. Boulder: Eastern European Monographs, 1987.
Konrad, Helmut. “Urbane Identitat in Zentraleuropa. Uberlegungen zu einer vergleichenden Studie.” Osterreichische Osthefte 37.1 (1995): 13-23.
Konstantinovic, Zoran, and Fridrun Rinner, eds. Eine Literaturgeschichte Mitteleuropas. Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2001.
Konstantinovic, Zoran. “Die Literatur in Mitteleuropa der zwanziger Jahre. La Mitteleuropa negli anni venti. Culture et societa. Ed. Quirion Principe. Gorizia: Istituto per gli incontri culturali mitteleuropei, 1992. 83-97.
Konstantinovic, Zoran. “Les Slaves du Sud et la Mitteleuropa.” Revue germanique internationale 1 (1994): 45-60.
Konstantinovic, Zoran. “Mitteleuropaische Literatur und kulturelle Identitat.” Mitteleuropaische Perspektiven. Ed. Arno Truger and Thomas H. Macho. Wien: Bohlau, 1990. 17-31.
Kurti, Laszlo, and Juliet Langman, eds. Beyond Borders: Remaking Cultural Identities in the New East and Central Europe. Boulder: Westview P, 1997.
Leitner, Erich, ed. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe. Bern: Peter Lang, 1998.
Lengyel, Gyorgy. “The Post-Communist Economic Elite.” A Society Transformed. Ed. Rudolf Andorka, Tamas Kolosi, Richard Rose, and Gyorgy Vukovich. Budapest: Central UP, 1999. 85-96.
Lewis, Virginia L. “The Other Face of Modernization: The Collapse of Rural Society in East Central European Realism and Naturalism.” Neohelicon: Acta comparationis litterarum universarum 22.2 (1995): 221-45.
Liebich, Andre, and Andre Reszler, eds. L’Europe centrale et ses minorites.Vers une solution europeenne. Paris: PU de France, 1993.
Matejka, Ladislav. “Milan Kundera’s Central Europe.” Cross Currents: A Yearbook of Central European Culture 9 (1990): 127-34.
Mayhew, Alan. Recreating Europe: The European Union’s Policy towards Central and Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge UP, 1998.
McNair, Brian. “Lovebirds? The Media, the State, and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe.” The Public 2.1 (1995): 75-91.
Michta, Andrew A., ed. America‘s New Alliances: Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic in NATO. Seattle: U of Washington P, 2000.
Nemeti, Ludmila Sargina. “Le Modernisme et l’idee de la fin de siecle dans les litteratures d’Europe centrale et orientale.” Neohelicon: Acta comparationis litterarum universarum 5.1 (1988): 113-23.
Nemoianu, Virgil. “Learning over Class: The Case of the Central European Ethos.” Cultural Participation: Trends since the Middle Ages. Ed. Ann Rigney and Douwe Fokkema. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. 79-107.
Niedermuller, Peter. “The Image of Eastern Europe and European Identity: An Anthropological Approach.” Watching Europe: A Media and Cultural Studies Reader. Ed. Ute Bechdolf, Pia Kalliopi Hatzistrati, Torsten Storm Johannsen, Michi Knecht, Hardy Kromer, Tanja Marquardt, Bas Raijmakers, Maarten Reesink, and Ralph Winkle. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Cultural Studies Foundation, 1993. 68-78.
Paul, David W., ed. Politics, Art and Commitment in the East European Cinema. New York: St. Martin’s, 1983.
Perczel, Csilla Ottlik. A History of Architecture in the Carpathian Basin (1000 a.d.-1920). Boulder: East European Monographs, 2000.
Pilon, Juliana Geran. The Bloody Flag: Post-Communist Nationalism in Eastern Europe. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992.
Pok, Attila. “Atonement and Sacrifice: Scapegoats in Modern Eastern and Central Europe.” East European Quarterly 32.4 (1999): 531-48.
Portuges, Catherine. “Comparative Central European Culture: Austrian and Hungarian Cinema Today.” Comparative Central European Culture. Ed. Steven Totosy de Zepetnek. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 2001. 133-48.
Rupnik, Jacques. The Other Europe. New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
Schopflin, George, and Nancy Wood, eds. In Search of Central Europe. Cambridge: Polity P, 1989.
Skvorecky, Josef. “Eastern European Literature in Transition.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 17 (1997): 98-107.
Stern, J. P. The Heart of Europe: Essays on Literature and Ideology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
Sussex, Roland. Culture and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Eastern Europe. Columbus: Slavica, 1985.
Svob-Djokic, Nada, ed. The Cultural Identity of Central Europe. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations Europe House, 1997.
Taras, Ray, ed. National Identities and Ethnic Minorities in Eastern Europe. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1998.
Ten Years after 1989: Postcommunist Reflections. Thematic Cluster Dissent (Fall 1999): 5-19.
Tismaneanu, Vladimir. Fantasies of Salvation: Democracy, Nationalism and Myth in Post-Communist Europe. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1998.
Toth, Istvan Gyorgy. Literacy and Written Culture in Early Modern Central Europe. Budapest: Central European UP, 2000.
Totosy de Zepetnek, Steven. “Comparative Cultural Studies and the Study of Central European Culture.” Kakanien Revisited (2003): <>.
Totosy de Zepetnek, Steven. “Ethnizitat und Zentrum/Peripherie. Deutschland, (ostliches) Mitteleuropa und das kanadische Modell.Kultur, Identitat, Europa. Uber die Schwierigkeiten und Moglichkeiten einer Konstruktion. Ed. Reinhold Viehoff and Rien T. Segers. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1999. 425-41.
Willett, John. “Is There a Central European Culture?” Cross Currents: A Yearbook of Central European Culture 10 (1991): 1-16.
Wiszniowska, Marta. “To Die of Politics: An Exclusively East-Central European Malady?East Central European Traumas and a Millennial Condition. Ed. Zbigniew Bialas and Wieslaw Krajka. Boulder: East European Monographs, 1999. 107-24.
Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1994.

Online Biblios 

Selected Bibliography for the Study of Central and East European Culture (annotation theirs) “a bibliography for the study of Central European culture ranging from studies in culture, literature, sociology, history, economics, architecture, political science, media, the arts, comparative cultural studies, etc. Central Europe and its culture(s) are understood here as a real and imagined space from Austria and the former East Germany to Romania and Bulgaria and Serbia to Galicia in the Ukraine, etc., including the Habsburg lands and their spheres of influence at various times of history. While the bibliography is with focus on the period of and after the 1989-1990 collapse of the Soviet empire and communism, essential studies about previous periods of the region are included.”
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